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**A short paper on time**

Part I

© 2019 Gregory Friedlander All Rights Reserved

This paper focuses on the true nature of time as well as the interaction of time, energy and dimension.

**In the beginning** there was no time, because there was only ct1. **Time is Built from low dimensional states.**

**Eventually transitions between ct3 and ct4** began. We experience these transitions e as time. The pre-time states build sequential realities and the net effect of this building when ct3-4 states shift we experience as time.

The **base structure** is a series of solutions to fpix, the denominator of pi. The **center of the universe** holds those with the longest lifespans, 10*150 changes in x in rough estimates for any point to change, although there is a wide range of points within that center since the core of the universe holds as much information as the outer portion which is populated by the visible galaxies. Because dimensions increase with compression, the core of the universe is largely a ct6 state, comparable to the center of a galaxy which is a ct5-6 compression state comprised of multiple black holes which are ct5 states.

**The galaxy from a 5-dimensional standpoint** would be largest at the center, the most “spherical” in the sense of a six-dimensional sphere having a numerator of 6/sum(fpix) as opposed to the more familiar 4/sum(fpix) that we experience. This 5-dimensional sphere would gradually flatten out like a flying saucer till it arrived at the zero-dimensional edges where new information is added at the approximate effective rate of 10^44 new bits every second, although seconds do not exist at the edges.

This shape corresponds to the shape of galaxies and given the fractal nature of the system, being based on the iterated equation that is the denominator of pi it is necessarily the case, the galaxy is a fractal form of the universe.

The **change rate at the edges** is faster than 10^44 changes per second and the rate of change where we are at is somewhere between 10^150 changes in x per change and 2 changes in x per change at the very edge of the universe understanding that points exist at every rate change in between the two extremes and these are folded together. The association through folding of remote fuse change rates allows for the apparent randomness as well as the building of what we view as time.

The **hidden variables of hidden variable theory** turn out to be **ct1-ct3 states** and perhaps early ct3-4 transitional states; the variables are **hidden by time** which is the illusion which gives rise to the appearance of certain changes appearing energetic and others not.

One more feature which is worth mentioning is that at its core, the **universe is powered by a count** which **generates the new data points**, **quantum bits**, which can remember **the count and shift from positive to negative in response to their evolving fpix solution (fuse)**, those bits being capable in a pre-time environment of not only keeping track of the count, but also keeping track of their unique fpix solution even as it approaches numbers like 10*150. **The “thing” that keeps this count and creates points with this ability;** perhaps memorizing them all together is a type of super-computer for which earthbound computers are fractal equivalents. That equivalence, however, does not explain the complexity of this system at the pre-time, dimensionless, thermodynamic free core of the universe.

This is a summary article. It gives applications to Physics associated with the article first published for peer review Journal of Physical Mathematics October 24, 2018 (Vol 9 Issue 4). “Algorithm Model defining Dimensional Features.”

Details of this theory can be found in **Algorithm Universe Model, 2nd Edition (2019)** (hereinafter AUM or Algorithm Universe Model) and **Algorithm Universe Theory Compendium Volumes 1 6th edition and Vol 2 3rd edition (2019)**.

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Speed and therefore energy are merely the amount of pre-time change which may be called change outside of a higher compression state.

Long before it was clear what was time or energy it became clear that all changes had to occur at the same rate. While offset fuse lengths provided some explanations it was not till the definition of time became clear that the rest of the change phenomena became clear.

What is time?

Time is a ‘frame’ of information which consists of pre-time changes. It can be further defined as ct1,2 and 3 net changes creating a dimensional framework which is a quantum bit of time before the next change in these states. That however is overly simplistic.

The reason for the over-simplification finding is that there is a type of time at ct3 comprised of ct1 and ct2 changes creating a net dimensional ct3 state. There are gradients of time with transitional states, so there is a time which is ct1,2, 3 and (for example) ct4t1-5 which creates a quantum bit for ct6 (theorized to be the photon) and another which may be the most important.

The most important is likely ct1,2,3 and ct4t1-6, photonic time; which forms the basis for our view of thermodynamics being a quantum time which could never be fully parsed, because full parsing would involve breakign it down to the ct4t1-5 variety.

Energy can be viewed in context with other dimensional changes. Not every transition involves energy, although higher ct state transitions result in exponentially higher transitions in energy, transitions from time-based compression states to time free compression states, at least for the part of the matrix involved. The overall process involves information breaking free from transitional and non-transitional states.

Energy is the pre-time features of dimension, viewed from the standpoint of time. In this way, energy is an illusion, important as that illusion might be.

When a cell turns energy into matter it is compression the information to the point where it goes from an energy state to a more compressed state.

You can see this in a burning twig. The compressed states, ct4-5 molecular states, hold within them lower information states. As it gets hot enough these begin to separate, breaking down at the ct3-4-5 molecular level, and movement and waves result which are lower ct3-4 transitional states portions of which change in a pre-time environment.

What this means is that life has figured out how to use the disconnect between pretime ct1-3 states and ct3-4 transitional state time to use the resulting change from these transitions to function.

The higher energy of fission and still higher energy of fusion result from more massive releases of pre-time ct states from states with higher compression features.

**A.** **Speed and energy**

Speed and energy are the amount of pre-time change which may be called change outside of a higher compression state

Long before it was clear what was time or energy it became clear that all changes occur at the same rate. While offset fuse lengths provided some explanations it was not till the definition of time became clear that the rest of the change phenomena became clear.

What is time?

Time is a frame of information which consists of pre-time changes. It can be further defined as ct1,2 and 3 net changes creating a dimensional framework which is a quantum bit of time before the next change in these states. That however is overly simplistic.

The reason for the over-simplification finding is that there is a type of time at ct3 comprised of ct1 and ct2 changes creating a net dimensional ct3 state. There are gradients of time with transitional states, so there is a time which is ct1,2, 3 and (for example) ct4t1-5 which creates a quantum bit for ct6 (theorized to be the photon) and which may be the most important from our perspective.

The most important is likely ct1,2,3 and ct4t1-6, photonic time; which forms the basis for our view of thermodynamics being a quantum time which could never be fully parsed, because full parsing would involve breaking it down to the ct4t1-5 and eventually down to ct3,2, then 1.

**B.** **Waves as manifestations of energy**

Waves are and energy are essentially the same, a manifestation of pre-time features, hence the reason we see energy in terms of waves, at least wave-particle states. At any present moment, they can exist as a point, but their pre-time elements and their change at pre-time rates gives them the potential to affect post time states with change features that are called energetic.

Figure 58a shows the results of movement of a square with points offset from a central axis 51 resulting in a curved set of solutions.

Figure 58b shows compression of the wavelengths in line with the shorter time frames 59a and 59b.

Waves are nothing more than these quantum points revolving around a central line, about a higher dimensional state.

When we say that all particles have wave features, what we are really saying is that all particle features have features which are time independent. The more time dependent the feature, the less wavelike features it has. Since all higher compression states are made up of lower compression states it is impossible to eliminate the time independent characteristics.

1. Overview of the underlying science

Time is an effect of dimensional change. It is not change. It is tied to change at the information level between photons and Neutrons and is spread out along Atoms and molecules (ct4-5 transition states) so that we can approximate change effects using time, so it misleads observations in several respects.

Logic requires that space, interchanging with other features of the universe must be the same thing. That is, you cannot have equational equivalence unless the two sides of the equation contain elements which are identical. This is ignored in many math models but not in AuT.

The best model AuM has found for this dimensional change separates change into pre-time change and post time change, a gradual transition.

Observation yields these basic “change” categories:

1. Fpix Changes tied to data generation and dimension-curvature or n/fpix where n varies between 1 and 6 in the observed universe;

2. Compression Changes due to dimensional compression based on 2f(n)^2^n.

With these two “basic” categories we can compartmentalize “net” forces, that is those forces which are observed, or observable based on how they are observed once time is applied. Time is effectively a force effect since it is tied to dimensional changes just as forces are. Gradual changes in force and gradual changes in time are experienced differently.

Proofs and applications of the two categories are presented in other published articles. Both equations are iterated functions, the second containing two nested iterated functions. Both give rise to fractal models.

AuT Man ™

**A.** **The amount of information involved in Time analysis**

The model for compression and decompression is relatively simply mathematically, but in application is complex.

If one starts with a ct5 matrix of blackholes, a single ct5 (black hole) state is composed of 1.46315E+63 ct1 states. This does not include the potential for hinge states and the required cloud because statistically these are a small fraction, the hinge states, for example, being as much as 1.54317E+62 is still only 10% of the matrix and, using the 4.3144E+37 analysis, is statistically insignificant.

An analysis of fractal sub-systems indicate that the black hole core is so much greater than the cloud system around it, that the minimal galaxy’s information compared to the black hole within is statistically insignificant (10^13 vs 10^16 based on mass measurements).

One can attack this analysis by focusing on the pre-time number of information states which are not taken into account in the analysis of a galactic or nuclear system and no attempt is made in this paper to address the myriad ways of looking at information.

The informational analysis is rendered more complex because we exist within a ct5-6 matrix which potentially is within a higher, invisible matrix, so the information amounts are much higher when looking at massive and supermassive black holes which are a multiple number of black holes. AuT fractal analysis suggests the minimum stable galaxy must have at least two black holes at its core.

While a range with this type of information discrepancy makes little sense, for purposes of time as we experience it, the range of information can be considered between a single neutron 4.29982E+24 quantum bits of information and a single black hole 1.46x10^63 bits.

To complicate the analysis further, the fuse length is as high as 10^150, even without our universe being bigger than what is observed. The minimum fuse length for the part of the universe where we experience time is within that framework potentially. A technical analysis of those time frames is important but beyond the scope of this paper.

**B.** **Construction of time**

Non-dimensional Changes are derived by generating fused data points using the formula (fpix): ([-1^x plus 2x(-1)^x-1]) as x varies from 1 to infinity for points. For any time, there must be some relativity, and none is present for ct1. A per-second conceptual framework does not exist.

Ct1-ct2 transitions occur in both directions, gravity and antigravity are resulting forces. Very little differentiation occurs because of the limited amount of folding that occurs, but as fpix fuses get long, these states achieve a lifetime of sorts. There are also ct1-ct1 transitions and ct1-ct2 transitions so that a relative movement, however limited, exists. Since these changes have very little “time” relationship, they are instantaneous and we only “experience” the net value, net gravity or net anti-gravity.

The first real focus is at the ct2-ct3 change. This is a complex change for several reasons. 1) There are ct1-2 and ct2-3 changes occur together. 2) There are a minimum of 4.3x10^8 ct1 states involved in a single ct3 state. 3) A new force is introduced based on the compression/decompression of ct3 states and 4) a resulting exponential increase in potential folding together of remote states and corresponding movement. 5) There are two relative changes, ct3:ct2 and ct2:ct1 and the latter creates a ct1:ct3 relativity. These continue to be pre-time changes because they play such a small effect in time. 6) There is an increase in transitional time changes from 4 in ct1-2 to 8 in ct2 to ct3. Conceivably this means there are 12 possible relativistic transitional states to deal with.

Understanding the complexity that is already in play at what is still a pretime state, it is worth looking at what “images” can be created. In looking at these it is important to remember that different dimensional states (different levels of compression) exist together so you have all the different versions of change at play. It is also important to understand that what occurs at this level is called “energy” in the parlance of the standard model. All matter, therefore, contains energy in the form of potential ct1-3 changes and matter can be converted to energy by converting higher compression states to lower compression states.

A hybrid example is the excited electron. The electron is called a primary particle by the standard model. AuT wholly rejects this conceptually and from a modeling standpoint, but in either case the orbital can be excited, often for a substantial period of time, more properly defined a series of changes in x.

Under the AuT model, the “orbit” is a framework of ct4T12 states which framework is expanded by adding the information within the specific photon or other exciting information state(s). In this way, the AuT electron can absorb energy as a temporary particulate post time component and then radiate it as a pre-time component. This is worth considering because it shows an example of the relationship between energy, matter and time.

Scale must be considered. One ct1 state is 1:4.3x10^8 of the ct3 state. The ct3 states is approximately 1:10^13 of an electron. The ct2 state is 1:1,679,616 of the ct3.

At any value of x, many ct1 states change state (plus/minus) together. Adjacent ct1 states change rapidly (within two ct1 states of one another); but far separated ct1 states can separate at a maximum along the scale of 10^150 change in x to 2. For any change in x, the chances of a statistically significant change in ct3 is relatively small unless one also considers all of the intervening state changes that occur. That being said, in any second, over 10^44 changes in x occur.

We cannot draw an entire ct3 state with its component parts to scale, so only representative elements are used. Looking at the figure below, over a number of values of x, CT1f may move to ct1h, changing the arrangement of information within the ct3 state shown as the largest circle.

Since we typically look at photons as speed of light transitions, we can look at changes below the ct6 state as faster than light transitions that can only be observed based on net results. Statistically, the movement of a single photon is 10^6:10^13 electrons so that the photon change is statistically insignificant compared to the electron.

The photon, however, can have a large number of transitions in its pretime position compared to the less active electron or t12 electron component. By way of comparison looking at the drawing below ct1f may occupy all of the places in the line between ct1f and ct1h while the ct3 state is statistically unaltered. This ability to change multiple locations of one lower time state within one higher time state reflects the energy of the lower state to the higher state.

E1 would be the energy between ct1 and ct2, E2-1 would be the energy of the ct1:ct3; E2-2 would be the energy of the Ct2:ct3. The typical energy we talk about comes in several forms, but is often considered E3-3T6, the movement of the photon relative to the neutron which could be broken down to E3-3T6-T12 which is the photon relative to a single principle component in the electron.

*Figure 19 This is a Concept drawing of how ct1 decompression changes ct3 history to generate time, which is cut from figure 9 showing exchanges in a broader ct3-4 complex.*